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VMware ESXi can take advantage of Flash/local SSDs in multiple ways:

  • Host swap cache (since 5.0):  ESXi will use part of the an SSD datastore as swap space shared by all VMs.  This means that when there is ESX memory swapping, the ESXi server will use the SSD drives, which is faster than HDD, but still slower than RAM.
  • Virtual SAN (VSAN) (since 5.5 with VSAN licensing): You can combine  the local HDD and local SSD on each host and basically create a distributed storage platform.  I like to think of it as a RAIN(Redundant Array of Independent Nodes).
  • Virtual Flash/vFRC (since 5.5 with Enterprise Plus): With this method the SSD is formatted with VFFS and can be configured as read and write through cache for your VMs, it allows ESXi to locally cache virtual machine read I/O and survives VM migrations as long as the destination ESXi host has Virtual Flash enabled. To be able to use this feature VMs HW version needs to be 10.

Check if the SSD drives were properly detected by ESXi

From vSphere Web Client

Select the ESXi host with Local SSD drives -> Manage -> Storage -> Storage Devices

See if it shows as SSD or Non-SSD, for example:



From CLI:

To enable the SSD option on the SSD drive

At this point you should put your host in maintenance mode because it will need to be rebooted.

If the SSD is not properly detected you need to use storage claim rules to force it to be type SSD. (This is also useful if you want to fake a regular drive to be SSD for testing purposes)

Add a PSA claim rule to mark the device as SSD (if it is not local (e.g. SAN))

For example (in case this was a SAN attached LUN)


Add a PSA claim rule to mark the device as Local and SSD at the same time (if the SSD drive is local)

For the device in my example it would be:

Reboot your ESXi host for the changes to take effect.


To remove the rule (for whatever reason, including testing and going back)

Once the ESXi server is back online verify that the SSD option is OK

From vSphere Web Client

Select the ESXi host with Local SSD drives -> Manage -> Storage -> Storage Devices

See if it shows as SSD or Non-SSD, for example:


From CLI:

Exit Maintenance mode.

Do the same on ALL hosts in the cluster.

Configure Virtual Flash

Now that the ESXi server recognize the SSD drives we can enable Virtual Flash.

You need to perform the below steps from the vSphere Web Client on all ESX hosts

ESXi host -> Manage -> Settings -> Virtual Flash -> Virtual Flash Resource Management -> Add Capacity…


You will see that the SSD device has been formatted using the VFFS filesystem, it can be used to allocate space for virtual flash host swap cache or to configure virtual Flash Read Cache for virtual disks.



Configure Virtual Flash Host Swap

One of the options you have is to use the Flash/SSD as Host Swap Cache, to do this:

ESXi host -> Manage -> Settings -> Virtual Flash -> Virtual Flash Host Swap Cache Configuration -> Edit…

// Enable and select the size of the cache in GB



Configure Flash Read Cache

Flash read cache is configured on a per-vm basis, per vmdk basis. VMs need to be at virtual hardware version 10 in order to use vFRC.

To enable vFRC on a VM’s harddrive:

VM -> Edit Settings -> Expand Hard Disk -> Virtual Flash Read Cache

Enter the size of the cache in GB (e.g. 20)

You can start conservative and increase if needed, I start with 10% of the VMDK size. Below, in the monitor vFRC section, you will see tips to rightsize your cache.



If you click on Advanced, you can configure/change the specific block-size (default is 8k) for the Read Cache, this allows you to optimize the cache for the specific workload the VM is running.


The default block size is 8k, but you may want to rightsize this based on the application/workload to be able to efficiently use the cache.

If you dont size the block-size of the cache you could potentially be affecting the efficiency of the cache:

  • If the workload has block sizes larger than the configured block-size then you will have increased cache misses.
  • If the workload has block sizes smaller than the configured block-size then you will be wasting precious cache.

Size correctly the block-size of your Cache

To correctly size the block-size of your cache you need to determine the correct I/O length/size for cache block size:

Login to the ESX host running the workload/VM for which you want to enable vFRC


Find world ID of each device


Start gathering statistics on World ID // Give it some time while it captures statistics

Get the IO length histogram to find the most dominant IO length

You want the IO length for the harddisk you will enable vFRC, in this case scsi0:1

(-c means compressed output)

As you can see, in this specific case,  16383(16k) is the most dominant IO length, and this is what you should use in the Advance options.


Now you are using a Virtual Flash Read Cache on that VM’s harddisk, which should improve the performance.

Monitor your vFRC

Login to the ESX host running the workload/VM for which you enabled vFRC, in the example below it is a 24GB Cache with 4K block-size:

There is a lot of important information here:
The Cache hit rate shows you the percentage of how much the cache is being used. A high number is better because it means that hits use the cache more frequently.
Other important items are IOPs and latency.

This stats also show information that can help you right size your cache, if you see a high number of cache evictions, Evict->Mean blocks per I/O operation, it could be an indication that your cache size is small or that the block-size of the cache is incorrectly configured.

To calculate available block in the cache, do the following:
SizeOfCache(in bytes) / BlockSizeOfCache(in bytes) = #ofBlocksInvFRC

For the example: A 24GB cache with 4k block-size, will have 6291456 blocks in the vFRC, see:


In the stats above we see 5095521 as the Mean number of cache blocks in use, and no evictions which indicates that 24GB cache with 4k seems to be a correctly sized cache.

Keep monitoring your cache to gain as much performance as you can from your Flash/SSD devices.

If you are running your VMware infrastructure on NetApp storage, you can utilize NetApp’s Virtual Storage Console (VCS) which integrates with vCenter to a provide a strong, fully integrated solution to managing your storage from within vCenter.

With VCS you can discover, monitor health and capacity, provision, perform cloning, backup and restores, as well as optimize your ESX hosts and misaligned VMs.

The use case I will write about is the ability to take a back up of all of your production Datastores and initiate a SnapMirror transfer to DR.

Installing NetApp’s Virtual Storage Console

Download the software from NetApp’s website (need credentials) from the software section: (version as of this post)

Install on a Windows System (can be vCenter if using Windows vCenter)

There are currently a couple of bugs with version 5.0 that can be addressed by following the following articles – hopefully they will be addressed soon by NetApp:


Follow the wizard…


smvi1 smvi2


Select Backup and Recovery to be able to use these features
smvi3 smvi4 smvi5


You may get a warning here and this is where you need to follow the bug fixes specified earlier (adding a line to smvi.override)

Then you need to enter the information requested:

Plugin service information: hostname/IP of the server you installed VSC (in this case it was the vCenter server)

Then enter the vCenter information


Check that the registration was successful


Verify that it is installed in the vCenter Web Client



Configure the NetApp Virtual Storage Console form vCenter Web Client

On the vCenter Web Client click on the Virtual Storage Console icon


Click on ‘Storage Systems’ and add your NetApp controllers including your DR controllers ( you will need this to successfully initiate SnapMirror after backups)


Once you have added them, you will be able to see their details and status, take a look at the summary and related objects. Also click on the ‘View Details’ link(s) they will provide a wealth of information about your storage


Go back to the main page of the Virtual Storage Console and you will see global details


With the above setup you can start provisioning storage, create backups/restores, mount snapshots and look at the details of everyobject from a storage perspective. Take a look at the Datacenter, Datastores, VMs.




Configure Datasore Backups followed by NetApp SnapMirror for Disaster Recovery


You need to have an initialized SnapMirror relationship

Create an empty schedule by adding the following line to /etc/snapmirror.conf

Ensure you have added your production NetApp controllers as well as your DR controllers on the vCenter Web Clien Virtual Storage Console


In vCenter Web Client, go to your Datastores view.

(Optional but recommended) Enable Deduplication in your Datastores

// This will save storage and increase the efficiency of the replication because you will only replicate deduplicated data. To do so:

Right click on a Datastore -> NetApp VSC -> Deduplication -> Enable

Right click on a Datastore -> NetApp VSC -> Deduplication -> Start (Select to scan the entire volume)


By default the deduplication process is scheduled daily at midnight, I recommend to have it happen at least 2 hours before SnapMirror replication.

For example:

Deduplication: daily at 8pm

SnapMirror: daily at 10pm

To change the default schedule of the deduplication process per volume you need to do the following on the NetApp controllers CLI:

Schedule the Backup and SnapMirror Update

Right click on a Datastore -> NetApp VSC -> Backup -> Schedule Backup









Add other Datastores to the same backup job (please remember that for SnapMirror Update to work you need to have pre-created the SnapMirror relationship).

Right click on the other Datastores -> NetApp VSC -> Backup -> Add to Backup Job

You will see the already created backup job (10pm_backup), select it and click ok.


At this point, all the Datastores you selected will be Deduplicated, Backed-up and Replication to the DR site.

Restoring on the Prod or DR site

Now that NetApp VSC is setup, backing up a replicating data, we can restore at will from the snapshot.

Restore a VM (entire VM or some of its virtual disks)

Right click on VM -> NetApp VSC -> Restore

Select backup from the list and choose to restore entire VM or just some disks

Restore from Datastore

Right click on Datastore -> NetApp VSC -> Restore

Select backup from the list and choose what to restore

Mount a Snapshot (it will show as another Datastore and you can retrieve files or even start VMs)

Click on a Datastore and go to Related Objects -> Backups

Select Backup, Right-Click and select Mount

You will see the datastore present and mounted to one ESX host, from there you can retrieve files, start VMs, etc.

Once you are done go back to the Datastore and unmount the Backup.


In this guide I will go through the process of upgrading a NetApp cluster’s Data OnTap, RLM, disk and shelf firmware in a non-disruptive manner.

The following process is for a FAS3040 cluster, but it should work on other series.

FAS3040 cluster
OS: DOT 8.0.3P2 7-mode
– DS14MK2 (both FC and SATA)
– DS4243 (both SAS and SATA)

Information gathering
Do a sysconfig -v and check for the following:

Usually when I perform an upgrade of OnTap, I take the opportunity (or it may be a requirement) to update disk and shelf firmware.
You need to get the disk, shelf and RLM/SP firmware from netapp’s site

1) Upgrade your RML/SP
Download the latest RLM/SP (4.1) from:

Check your RLM/SP version (in this case it is RLM)

Place the on the NetApp controller, under $etc/software, then:

When the system prompts you to reboot the RLM, enter y to continue.


2) Upgrade your disk firmware for all the disks that are outdated(do this the night before the DOT upgrade)
To do the disk FW upgrade on the background, check the following is enabled:

toaster> options raid.background_disk_fw_update.enable

From the ‘sysconfig -v‘:
11.22: NETAPP X308_HMARK03TSSM NA01 2538.5GB (5860533168 512B/sect)
Disk X308_HMARK03TSSM with firmware NA01 needs to be upgraded to NA04

Download the latest firmware from:
Place the .LOD file under $etc/disk_fw

You will see that they will start upgrading on the background non-disruptively

3) Upgrade your shelf firmware (same day as DOT upgrade)

Download the latest firmware from:
Copy the .SFW file and the .FVF file if present to the $etc/shelf_fw and .AFW and its .FVF file to the $etc/acpp_fw directory.

4) Upgrade OnTap
Download ontap from NetApp’s site- in this case 8.1.2
Check its md5 checksum against what netapp posts on their download page to make sure you image is good.

Since we are doing a NDU(non-disruptive-upgrade), please make sure one system can handle your load

On both NetApp controllers:
Download the system files for 8.1.2 (812_q_image.tgz) from the Support Site. Be sure to download the system files that match your node model.
If you are performing a Data ONTAP NDU (or backout), you must perform this step on both nodes before performing the takeover and giveback steps.

Copy 812_q_image.tgz to $etc/software

Make sure that it is there:

Let NetApp know you are starting the NDU upgrade:

Start the upgrade (-r prevents automatic reboot)

Check the version

Now, use this opportunity to update the shelf firmware

Perform the same process on the other NetApp controller

Now that both controllers have the 8.1.2 DOT version, it is time for takeover in a NDU manner, which will reboot the controller

From controller1 (toaster)

You should wait about 10 minutes before giving back to give the clients an opportunity to stabilize.
On the other controller, you will see (after a reboot)

…After 10 minutes

Check the second controller(toaster2) to ensure that it is running 8.1.2

Wait about 10 minutes, then from toaster2 takeover toaster

You will see on toaster

Now is time to giveback services
On toaster2:

Check the controller to ensure that it is running 8.1.2

Let NetApp know you are done:

That is it, RLM, disk fw, shelf fw and DOT were upgraded in a non-disruptive manner. You can check by running ‘sysconfig -v’

Many companies buy wildcard certificates for many reasons: price, management, flexibility, etc.

The following guide shows how to install a wildcard certificate from DigiCert on your NetApp controllers.

You will need the following 3 files in PEM format:
DigiCertCA.pem // This is the Certificate Authority, in this case from DigiCert
wildcard_example_com.pem // This is the wildcard certificate
wildcard_example_com_key.pem // This is the private key

1) Stop SSL on the NetApp controller
filer> secureadmin disable ssl

Now From a Linux/Unix system:

2) mount the NetApp’s vol0
LinuxStation# mkdir /mnt/filer
LinuxStation# mount /mnt/filer

3) Go to the keymgr folder and backup the current certificate and key.

# Backup Certificate
LinuxStation# cd /mnt/filer/etc/keymgr/cert/
LinuxStation:/mnt/filer/etc/keymgr/cert/# mv secureadmin.pem secureadmin.pem.bak

# Backup Key
LinuxStation# cd /mnt/filer/etc/keymgr/key/
LinuxStation:/mnt/filer/etc/keymgr/key/# mv secureadmin.pem secureadmin.pem.bak

4) Create the new files based on the wildcard certificate files, assuming you placed them on /opt/certificates

# Create Certificate
LinuxStation# cd /opt/certificates/
LinuxStation:/opt/certificates/# cat wildcard_example_com.pem DigiCertCA.pem > secureadmin_cert.pem
LinusStation# mv /opt/certificates/secureadmin_cert.pem /mnt/filer/etc/keymgr/cert/secureadmin.pem

# Create Key
LinuxStation# cd /opt/certificates/
LinuxStation:/opt/certificates/# cat wildcard_example_com_key.pem > secureadmin_key.pem
LinusStation# mv /opt/certificates/secureadmin_key.pem /mnt/filer/etc/keymgr/key/secureadmin.pem

5) On the NetApp controller, add the new cert:
filer> secureadmin addcert ssl /etc/keymgr/cert/secureadmin.pem

6) Enable SSL
filer> secureadmin enable ssl

NetApp Data OnTap 8 comes with a feature called Data Motion which will move Volumes between aggregates with no disruption.
But for places that are running OnTap 7.x, and need to migrate Volumes from one aggr to another there is ndmpcopy or SnapMirror.

I had the task of moving all data from old NetApp shelves into new Shelves, this really meant to me migrating Volumes from the aggregates in the old shelves into aggregates in the new shelves.

For this guide I am going to use SnapMirror and the task is to migrate the volume ‘oldvol’ sitting on the aggregate ‘oldaggr’ to volume ‘newvol’ which will seat on aggregate ‘newaggr’. All of this is happening on the same NetApp controller, I am not migrating to another controller in this instance, this is just to decommision the old shelves.


1) Check that you have SnapMirror license

filer> license
snapmirror XXXXXX

* If you don’t you will need to purchase one and install it.

2) Add the controller (in this case is the same) to the allowed SnapMirror Hosts

options snapmirror.access host=filer1

3) Enable SnapMirror

options snapmirror.enable on

4) Create the SnapMirror destination volume. The size of the destination volume must be at least the same size as the original volume

vol create newvol newaggr 100G
// The original volume oldvol is also 100G

5) Restrict your destination volume to leave it ready for SnapMirror

vol restrict newvol

6) You can schedule replication to happen often, that way when you are ready to migrate, less data will need to be migrated during the cut-over. I ran scheduled replication every night at 10:00 PM, let it run during weekdays and cut-over to the new location on Saturday morning.

Add the schedule to /etc/snapmirror.conf

FILER1:oldvol FILER1:newvol – 0 2 * *

7) At this point we are ready to start the SnapMirror relationship

snapmirror initialize –S FILER1:oldvol FILER1:newvol

8 ) Monitor status of the replication

snapmirror status

9) At this point we are ready to cut-over to the new shelves/aggr. If you have a LUN in the volume, you might want to disconnect the server that attaches to the LUN by either disconnecting the LUN or unmapping the LUN to the server, or bring down the server while you are doing this maintenance.

10) Now run the migration, which will do the following:

  • Performs a SnapMirror incremental transfer to the destination volume.
  • Stops NFS and CIFS services on the entire storage system with the source volume.
  • Migrates NFS file handles to the destination volume.
  • Makes the source volume restricted.
  • Makes the destination volume read-write.

filer1> snapmirror migrate oldvol newvol

11) snapmirror migrate will migrate NFS handles, but you will need to re-establish CIFS connections and map the igroups to the new LUN paths

NetApp Appliances support Link Aggregation of their network interfaces, they call the Link Aggregation a VIF (Virtual Interface) and this provides Fault Tolerance, Load Balancing and higher throughput.

NetApp supports the following Link Aggregation modes:

From the NetApp documentation:
Single-mode vif
In a single-mode vif, only one of the interfaces in the vif is active. The other interfaces are on standby, ready to take over if the active interface fails.
Static multimode vif
The static multimode vif implementation in Data ONTAP is in compliance with IEEE 802.3ad (static). Any switch that supports aggregates, but does not have control packet exchange for configuring an aggregate, can be used with static multimode vifs.
Dynamic multimode vif
Dynamic multimode vifs can detect not only the loss of link status (as do static multimode vifs), but also a loss of data flow. This feature makes dynamic multimode vifs compatible with high-availability environments. The dynamic multimode vif implementation in Data ONTAP is in compliance with IEEE 802.3ad (dynamic), also known as Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).

In this guide I will set up a Dynamic multimode vif between the NetApp system and the Cisco switches using LACP.

I am working with following hardware:

  • 2x NetApp FAS3040c in an active-active cluster
    With Dual 10G Ethernet Controller T320E-SFP+
  • 2x Cisco WS-C6509 configured as one Virtual Switch (using VSS)
    With Ten Gigabit Ethernet interfaces

Cisco Configuration:

Port-Channel(s) configuration:
// I am using Port-Channel 8 and 9 for this configuration
// And I need my filers to be in VLAN 10

interface Port-channel8
description LACP multimode VIF for filer1-10G
switchport access vlan 10
switchport mode access
interface Port-channel9
description LACP multimode VIF for filer2-10G
switchport access vlan 10
switchport mode access

Interface Configuration:
// Since I am using VSS, my 2 Cisco 6509 look like 1 Virtual Switch
// For example: interface TenGigabitEthernet 2/10/4 means:
// interface 4, on blade 10, on the second 6509

interface TenGigabitEthernet1/10/1
description “filer1_e1a_net 10G”
switchport access vlan 10
switchport mode access
channel-group 8 mode active
spanning-tree portfast
interface TenGigabitEthernet2/10/1
description “filer1_e1b_net 10G”
switchport access vlan 10
switchport mode access
channel-group 8 mode active
spanning-tree portfast
interface TenGigabitEthernet1/10/2
description “filer2_e1a_net 10G”
switchport access vlan 10
switchport mode access
channel-group 9 mode active
spanning-tree portfast
interface TenGigabitEthernet2/10/2
description “filer2_e1b_net 10G”
switchport access vlan 10
switchport mode access
channel-group 9 mode active
spanning-tree portfast

Check the Cisco configuration

NetApp Configuration:

filer1>vif create lacp net10G -b ip e1a e1b
filer1>ifconfig net10G netmask
filer1>ifconfig net10G up

filer2>vif create lacp net10G -b ip e1a e1b
filer2>ifconfig net10G netmask
filer2>ifconfig net10G up

Don’t forget to make the change persistant

Filer1:: /etc/rc
hostname FILER1
vif create lacp net10G -b ip e1b e1a
ifconfig net hostname-net mediatype auto netmask partner net10G
route add default 1
routed on
options dns.domainname
options dns.enable on
options nis.enable off

Filer2:: /etc/rc
hostname FILER2
vif create lacp net10G -b ip e1b e1a
ifconfig net hostname-net mediatype auto netmask partner net10G
route add default 1
routed on
options dns.domainname
options dns.enable on
options nis.enable off

Check the NetApp configuration

This post is aimed to help administrators to keep Linux home directories in a centralized location and mounting them when needed by using the Automounter.
NOTE: Each user should have unique uid/gid

NFS Server:
Any NFS Server will do just fine.
I will use NetApp NFS since this is for a production environment.

RHEL Client:
RHEL 5.3 64bit

john uid=2100 gid=2100
alex uid=2101 gid=2101

NetApp NFS Server Setup:
1) Create a volume to host your home directories

filer> vol create homedirs aggr1 200g

2) Enter the following in your /etc/exports file to export this to the specific RHEL client.

filer> exportfs -p, /vol/homedirs
filer> exportfs -a

RHEL Client Configuration:

1) As root mount the volume anywhere in the system. (This is only to create the home directories and assign the proper ownership, then unmount.)
[root@rhelbox ~]# mkdir /mnt/homedirs
[root@rhelbox ~]# mount ny1afilerd1:/vol/homedirs /mnt/homedirs/
[root@rhelbox ~]# mount

filer:/vol/homedirs on /mnt/homedirs type nfs (rw,

2) Create the home directories and assign proper ownership
[root@rhelbox ~]# mkdir /mnt/homedirs/{john,alex}

[root@rhelbox ~]# id john
uid=2100(john) gid=2100 groups=2100
[root@rhelbox ~]# chown 2100:2100 /mnt/homedirs/john/

[root@rhelbox ~]# id alex
uid=2101(alex) gid=2101 groups=2101
[root@rhelbox~]# chown 2101:2101 /mnt/homedirs/alex/

3) Copy the files from /etc/skel to the new home directory
[root@rhelbox ~]# for i in john alex; do cp /etc/skel/.* /mnt/homedirs/$i/; done

4) Unmount the temporary folder
[root@rhelbox~]# umount /mnt/homedirs
[root@rhelbox~]# rmdir /mnt/homedirs

5) Configure the Automounter
Enter the following in /etc/auto.master
/home /etc/auto.home –timeout=60

Create /etc/auto.home and populate as follows:
* -fstype=nfs,rw,nosuid,soft

6) Restart the automounter
[root@rhelbox ~]# service autofs restart

7) That should be it, lets give it a try
[root@rhelbox ~]# su – john
[john@rhelbox ~]$ ls -A
.bash_history .bash_logout .bash_profile .bashrc

This posting will help you configuring multipathing on RHEL 5.3 for LUNs carved from a NetApp SAN. For this guide I am using a C-Class blade system with QLogic HBA cards.

1) Make sure you have the packages needed by RHEL, otherwise install them.

2) Install QLogic Drivers if needed, or utilize RHEL drivers. In my case I am using HP C-Class blades with Qlogic HBA cards. HP drivers can be found at the HP site, driver is called hp_sansurfer. I am utilizing RHEL built in drivers, but you can install the HP/QLogic drivers as follows:

3) If Qlogic HBA, install the SanSurfer CLI, this is very useful program for doing things with QLogic HBA cards, it can be downloaded at QLogic website, install as follows:

4) Install NetApp Host Utilities Kit, the package is a tar.gz file, you can find it at the now site

Open it and run the install shell script

5) Once Everything is installed on the host, create the LUN and ZONE it from the NetApp, Brocade(SAN Fabric),Host

6) Once it has been Zoned and mapped correctly, verify if your RHEL host can see it.

7) Utilize NetApp tools to see LUN connectivity

8 ) Utilize NetApp tools to check multipathing, not set yet

Time to configure multipathing

9) Start the multipath daemon

10) Find you WWID, this will be needed in the configuration if you want to alias it.

Comment out the blacklist in the default /etc/multipath.conf, otherwise you will NOT see anything.

11) Now you are ready to configure /etc/multipath.conf

Exclude (blacklist) all the devices that do not correspond to any
LUNs configured on the storage controller and which are mapped to
your Linux host. There are 2 methods:
Block by WWID
Block by devnode
In this case I am blocking by devnode since I am using HP and know my devnode RegEx
Also configure the device and alias(optional).
The full /etc/multipath.conf will look like this:

12) Restart multipath and make sure it starts automatically:

13) Verify multipath is working

14) Now you can access the LUN by using the mapper

15) Format it to your liking and mount it

16 ) If you want it to be persistent after reboots put it on /etc/fstab and make sure multipathd start automatically.

17) If possible reboot to check it mounts correctly after reboots.

You have added a new disk or increased the size of your LUN, or increased the size of the virtual disk in case of virtual machines, and now you need to increase the partition, the Logical Volume and the filesystem in order to be able to use the new space.

In this post I go through the steps necessary to make this happen in a RHEL 5.3 system.

The LUN I will increase has 20GB and it had an LVM partition. I decided to increase the LUN size to 72GB and this is how it looks now.

[root@server~]# fdisk -lu
Disk /dev/sdb: 77.3 GB, 77309411328 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9399 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdb1 * 1 2611 20971488 8e Linux LVM

I need to perform the following steps in order to be able to use the new space.

1. Increase the size of the partition using fdisk

[root@server ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb

Command (m for help): u //Change the display to sectors
Changing display/entry units to sectors
Command (m for help): p //Print the current partition table for that drive
Disk /dev/sdb: 77.3 GB, 77309411328 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9399 cylinders, total 150994944 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdb1 * 64 41943039 20971488 8e Linux LVM
Command (m for help): d //Delete the partition information, we will recreate
Selected partition 1
Command (m for help): n //Create partition
Command action
e extended
p primary partition (1-4)
p //In this case it is primary
Partition number (1-4): 1 // In this case it is the first partition on the drive
First sector (63-150994943, default 63): 64 //Align partition if used on NetApp
Last sector or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (64-150994943, default 150994943):
Using default value 150994943
Command (m for help): t //Change type from Linux(default) to Linux LVM
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e //Linux LVM partition type
Changed system type of partition 1 to 8e (Linux LVM)
Command (m for help): p //Print again to double check
Disk /dev/sdb: 77.3 GB, 77309411328 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9399 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdb1 1 9400 75497440 8e Linux LVM
Command (m for help): w //Write the partition table
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table.
The new table will be used at the next reboot.
Syncing disks.

2. You need to reboot for the changes to take place, or just run

server# partprobe

3. Make LVM acknowledge the new space

[root@server ~]# pvresize /dev/sdb1

4. Check that the Volume group shows the new space

[root@server ~]# vgs
VG #PV #LV #SN Attr VSize VFree
vg0 1 2 0 wz–n- 71.97G 52.00G

5. Extend the logical volume:
make it total of 28G in this example

[root@server~]# lvresize -L 28G /dev/mapper/vg0-lvhome
Extending logical volume lvhome to 28.00 GB
Logical volume lvswap successfully resized

You can also take all the free space available

[root@server ~]# lvresize -l +100%FREE /dev/mapper/vg0-lvhome
Extending logical volume lvhome to 67.97 GB
Logical volume lvhome successfully resized

6. Use the rest for whatever partition you want

[root@server~]# lvcreate -l 100%FREE -n lvdata vg0

7. Resize the Filesystem

[root@server~]# resize2fs /dev/mapper/vg0-lvhome
resize2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Filesystem at /dev/mapper/vg0-lvhome is mounted on /home; on-line resizing required
Performing an on-line resize of /dev/mapper/vg0-lvhome to 9953280 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/mapper/vg0-lvhome is now 9953280 blocks long.

When deploying vmware virtual machine on top of VMFS on top of a NetApp SAN, you need to make sure to align it properly otherwise you will end up with performance issues. File system misalignment is a known issue when virtualizing. Also, when deploying LUNs from a NetApp appliance, you need to make sure no to reformat the LUN, or you will lose the alignment, just create a filesystem on top of the LUN.

NetApp provides a great technical paper about this at:

In this post Iwill show you how to align an empty vmdk disk/LUN using the open source utility GParted. This is for new vmdk disks/LUNs, dont do it on disk that contain data as you will lose it. This is for Golden Templates that you want aligned, so subsequent virtual machines will inherit the right alignment, or for servers that need a NetApp LUN attached.

The resulting partition works for Linux and Windows, just create a filesystem on top of it.

You can find GParted at:

1. Boot the VM from the GParted CD/Iso. Click on the terminal icon to open a terminal:

2. Check the partition Starting Offsets, in this case I have 3 disks 2 are already aligned to the 64k offset, I will align the new disk as well.

3. Create an aligned partition on the drive using fdisk

gparted# fdisk /dev/sdc

Below is a screenshot of the answers to fdisk, the important option is to select to start the offset at 64k, as indicated.

4. Now check again and the partition should be aligned

[root@server ~]# fdisk -lu

Disk /dev/sda: 209 MB, 209715200 bytes
64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 200 cylinders, total 409600 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 * 64 409599 204768 83 Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 77.3 GB, 77309411328 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9399 cylinders, total 150994944 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdb1 * 64 41943039 20971488 8e Linux LVM

Disk /dev/sdc: 107.3 GB, 107374182400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 13054 cylinders, total 209715200 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdc1 64 209715199 104857568 83 Linux